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FAQ

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Should I take the Construction or General Industry outreach course?
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Outreach Training Program offers basic safety and health information and education across industries including construction, general industry, and the maritime sector, and at disaster sites.The program however does not cater to any employer’s requirement to prtraining under specific OSHA standards. You can go with the general industry outreach course or the construction course depending on your work area and your need. In both, the general industry and construction syllabus, the program covers workers‡ rights, employer responsibilities and how to file a complaint. You must take note that that the Outreach training program is not considered a certification, and although some states, municipalities or others may only consider the Outreach Training Program as a precondition to employment, it is definitely not an OSHA requirement.The courses in both domains i.e. Construction and General Industry are either of 10-hour or 30-hour duration, delivered by OSHA-authorized trainers. While the 10-hour course addresses general safety and health hazards on the job, the 30-hour class is designed for those holding responsible positions in the organization, like supervisors or workers. At the end of it all, workers become more aware of workplace hazards and their rights.OSHA’s Outreach Training Program for the Construction Industry assumes importance given the high hazard nature of the industry. Residential construction, bridge erection, roadway paving, excavations, demolitions, and large scale painting jobs are prone to accidents. Construction workers engage in many activities that may expose them to serious hazards, such as falling from rooftops, unguarded machinery, getting struck by heavy construction equipment, electrocutions, silica dust, and asbestos. OSHA for construction safety is worth pursuing if you work at a construction site fraught with danger.
Why does OSHA not apply in prisons? Don't the Occupational Safety and Health standards cover human s in the USA?
Hello Dr. Gordon,I appreciate your question and your confidence in me to answer it given your academic background and accomplishments.In order to give you a fairly detailed response, I think I need to break down the roles and responsibilities of a few different organizations that deal specifically within the areas in which you’re referring too.First, I think that it is very important to understand that OSHA is an agency within the Dept. of Labor. As well as the Mine Safety and Health Administration. FLSA (Fair Standards Labor Act) is also used to govern work practices and compensation for youth workers. We won’t get into either MSHA or FLSA. With that said, it is also important to understand that OSHA really only covers the labor practices of federal employment such as, the BOP (Bureau of Prisons) and typically defers regulation to state governing agencies regarding labor practices. Usually, it’s the states Dept. of Labor (Workforce Commissions) and/or the Dept. of Health and Human Services that will investigate specific issues or whistle blower complaints regarding work and standards of work of state owned or contracted property.It’s also important to understand that OSHA can and will regulate construction and general industry regardless of federal work or private construction. However, they will only regulate work conditions and regulations. Worker rights are typically handled through the respective states Dept. of Labor (Workforce Commissions) or Health and Human Services.Side note*(29 CFR 1910 and and 1926 are the construction and general industry regulations that will be used to enforce standards within those industries.)OSHA can and will perform inspections for on institutions, but generally only for building and safety protocol compliance.One other thing that I should mention is accreditation. If any Federal, state, or local jail wants to get accredited, it usually does so through the ACA (American Correctional Association). Although not a mandatory accreditation and at times controversial, they do have very strict standards that they require a jail/prison to uphold in order to obtain their accreditation. I could not tell you what their accreditation helps them with, but it is supposed to help give the administration guidelines and operational best practices to use.It is important to know that there is NOT a government agency that uses the ACA accreditation to uphold any violations or standards in practices for any jail. This is done through OSHA and other State Agencies.As a former State Correctional Officer, I can tell you firsthand that OSHA does apply in FEDERAL prisons and state prisons (in certain areas). When it comes to the construction of a prison and how it is ran, please keep in mind that the safety and security of staff, guards, and inmates are the top priority. There are regulations that due to security restrictions are not typical in any other environment. If you’re referring to the prison guards who work astronomical hours usually due to manpower shortages, that is covered and regulated by the Department of Labor and if state ran, the states workforce commission or labor agency . If you’re referring to inmate treatment, rather than I try to go into a long explanation that would probably put you to sleep, I’ve included a link here for you to review regarding the protections that inmates and workers of the BOP (Bureau of Prisons) are required to uphold.Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationWhat you will not see in this letter of clarification is that most if not all inmates who are made to work are done so in a matter of ways. Involuntary “chain-gangs” are no longer legal. Working inmates are usually incentive based and voluntary and in many regards are paid. Not much, sometimes $.25 cents and hour or a little more, but some inmates leave prison with a little money in their pocket. Whereas, work done for the benefit of the city or state, monies paid to the inmate can be take to pay for restitution payments to victims of their crimes or for boarding of the inmates. They are still paid a small wage such as, the aforementioned, but a lot of the money they make will go to paying for the fines and fees associated with their crimes.If you’re referring to the treatment of prisoners, all federal, state, and local jails must follow the dept. of Justice guidelines. This link below will give you some insight to the process, regulation, and enforcement of such treatment. But, in very quick reference, the CRIPA (Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act) 42 ss 1997a expresses that the State or Federal Attorney Generals Office has the right to investigate issues regarding the treatment, environment, and practices of the prison or jail at any level. Please see link below:Rights Of Persons Confined To Jails And PrisonsThe job itself comes with inherent risks associated with dealing with people accustom to violence or at least willing to resort to violence to get what they want. Measures are typically taken to isolate the better inmates from the really bad inmates, but the reality of it is that depending on the environment, the people within it, and of course the leadership of the administration down to the staff and guards, a prison can be ran as smoothly or as bad as one can imagine.From personal experience, I never had issues with inmates. I realized early on, that they just want to be treated like human beings and treated with some sense of dignity. I learned that many inmates committed crimes because they had a lack of education and resources to live and support themselves and their family. Very few did I meet that truly had violence in the heart or mind because they truly just loved it. Not that there wasn’t a few, but the majority were not that way. They did what they felt they had to and unfortunately, they made a wrong choice. There were more guards I knew who had a jaded heart or mindset about inmates that drew more trouble for them than what was really worthwhile. They had this mentality that treating an inmate like a dog was the only way to “rehabilitate” them and that if they showed them any type of respect or dignity, it was sign of weakness and they would manipulate them. Although, there are a ton of manipulators out there, if they know that you would actually help them when you could within the rules and polices, but be stern and steadfast when you couldn’t, they generally knew to respect you enough to not give you problems. Sometimes, just being a kind human can really help you, but it could also land you in a lot of trouble or even worse hurt given the circumstances. So, it’s important for guards and staff to understand the balance. Being a correctional officer in any capacity is a very difficult and dangerous job. It takes a special person to work in that type of capacity for the little pay and benefits they receive for it. It really is a thankless job that many people will never understand.Hope this helps and if you need anymore clarification, please let me know. Again, thank you for your question.
Has OSHA issued safety standards related to treadmill desks in the workplace? What about regulators in other countries?
Good question? I did some looking and could not find anything other proper electrical grounding. But in all things regarding safety in the workplace. The General Duty Clause may be used. So, my best answer would be to ensure that training and documentation is done. Use the sales rep of the machine to prthe training.
What are the best practices for construction safety inspections?
Construction safety inspections are the most effective means of catching and countering bad habits and hazards.(Next to inspections, the two most important components of a good safety program are planning and training.)Here is a detailed guide on construction safety inspections.Overall, construction companies—large and small—are reporting positive financial impacts from safety programs. And the size of those benefits increases as the depth of the program increases. In an industry that operates on low margins, this is a powerful finding.Let’s take a look at the benefits of safety1) Worker safety and retentionFirst of all, you want your workers to be safe. You want them going home in the same condition they came to work in.Companies that fail to prsafe work environments are unable to retain their workforce, at least in the long term.On the contrary, when companies comply with regulations, prall necessary PPE, eliminate jobsite hazards and risks, and listen to their workers when concerns are raised, they enjoy the benefits of safe worksites—which translates into both a high retention rate of current workers and an increased flow of new ones.In times of construction worker shortage, this alone can give you a big competitive advantage. But there’s more.2) ReputationA well-performing safety program will give you a big advantage in the marketplace. Developers are becoming more interested in safety programs as well. They recognize that a safety-conscious general contractor reduces their potential liability for lawsuits and bad publicity. A safety program is a legitimate marketing advantage that allows you to separate your firm from your competition.3) OperationsA safety program is a benefit from an operational standpoint as well, as it will prevent you from suffering incidents and project disruptions that create delays and waste time. Obviously, this leads to improved performance and more on-time project deliveries.Also, workers will come to your job sites trusting that they operate within a safe work environment, which improves both morale and productivity.Let’s also not forget that injuries lead to higher insurance premiums and potential fines.4) RegulationsIf OSHA or another outside person/agency inspects the work site, you will have clear documentation about the inspections that have been performed. For example, if a crane on your jobsite malfunctions but you have documentation showing it was recently inspected, you can demonstrate you followed proper safety procedures.= Let’s sum up the benefits of construction safety once more:Your workers will be safeIt will be easier for you to find and retain workersIt will give you a reputation advantage and help you win dealsIt will reduce delays (due to incidents) and insurance premiums while increasing worker morale and productivityIt will help you comply with regulations (and avoid fines)Applying the best practices listed in this article will increase the success of your safety program and your safety inspections. So keep on reading.In this guide you’ll learn the following:What are construction safety inspections?Construction safety inspections: How often and by whom?Best practices for safety inspection site visitsSafety inspections and checklistsWhat goes into a safety inspection report?Best practices for safety inspection reportsHow to draft safety inspection reports without spending an hour at the end of the dayHow to select the right safety inspection appBest practices for getting the most out of your safety inspectionsConstruction safety inspections: How often and by whom?How often should you we do safety inspections?As in all things, it depends—but here’s a useful guideline:Informal inspections should be done by all supervisors whenever they are out on site. Such inspections identify hazardous conditions and either correct them immediately or report them for corrective action. The frequency of these inspections varies with the frequency and conditions of equipment use.Formal documented inspections are ideally done weekly by supervisors and monthly by health and safety representatives.It’s also a good idea to get project managers or even company leadership involved with inspections to emphasize their importance.Best practices for safety inspection site visitsHere are a couple of useful tips for executing safety inspection site visits:Draw attention to the presence of any immediate danger. Other items can await the final report.Shut down any hazardous items that cannot be brought to a safe operating standard until repaired.Do not operate equipment. Ask the operator for a demonstration. If the operator of any piece of equipment does not know what dangers may be present, this is cause for concern. Never ignore any item because you do not have knowledge to make an accurate judgment of safety.Look up, down, around and inside. Be methodical and thorough. Do not spoil the inspection with a “once-over-lightly” approach.Make “on-the-spot” recordings of all findings before they are forgotten.Ask questions, but do not unnecessarily disrupt work activities.Consider operational factors, such as how the work is organized or the pace of the work, and how these factors impact safety.Discuss as a group whether any problem, hazard or accident might generate from a given work situation. Determine what corrections or controls are appropriate.Take a lot of photos.Safety inspections and checklistsThe goal of safety inspections is to identify hazards—and the best way to do that is with a checklist. With everything written down, it’s easy to make sure you’ve covered all your bases, reducing the chance of missing a potential hazard.For his must-read book The Checklist Manifesto, Atul Awnada interviewed experts from many disciplines (pilots, doctors, contractors).His conclusion? People need checklists to execute projects efficiently. Checklists reduce the risk of mistakes and increase the likelihood everything will get done as specified.When it comes to safety inspections, a checklist is a powerful way to ensure you don’t overlook important details. They free up your mental RAM.The checklist should be comprehensive, covering the following topics at a minimum:Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Has the correct gear been distributed to all workers? Is each piece of equipment in good repair?Tools and equipment: Are they in proper working order? Are people using the right tool for the job?Fall protection methods: Is fall protection in use? Is it properly set up?Protective devices and signs: Are welders surrounded by a curtain to protect others? Are signs easy to read and warnings clear?Electrical concerns: Are electrical cords safe, and kept off the floor? Is there proper lighting? Is temporary electricity safely installed?Scaffolding: Are all connections secure? Is scaffolding tied to the structure? Are all connections secure?Now, let’s move on to the safety inspection reports that result from the inspections.What goes into a safety inspection report?Obviously, not all safety inspection reports will look the same. Depending on your business and the type of projects you perform, you’ll need to include different items.Here are the most common elements of a safety inspection report:Project information: add the project name, project number, address, name of the person who created the report, etc.Report date: If you want to record what happened or what didn’t happen on particular day or week, you need to put the date on your report.Safety hazards and incidents:Copy all unfinished items from the previous report on the new report.Document all safety risks and observations with enough photos to illustrate the issue. Add recommended methods of control.in - This website is for sale? - Control Resources and Information. the case of accidents or incidents, record who they impacted, who was involved, when and where they occurred, the impact on work, and any photos of the event.Number each item consecutively.Classify hazards. A hazard rating establishes priorities for corrective action and also highlights the level of severity or seriousness of the hazards.Add a due date to the items.Assign the items so responsibilities are clear. This will facilitate accountability and prevent problems from slipping through the cracks. It’s not enough for workers to note they found problems, those problems also need to be resolved quickly.Make sure the location of the item is clear, e.g. by adding annotations to a floor planSignatures: Optionally, you can ask people present to sign off the report.Best practices for safety inspection reportsYour inspections and reports are the basis for corrective actions and follow-up, which will prevent incidents from happening in the first place. So it’s worthwhile to make your safety reports are effective by following these best practices:Prsufficient detail: State exactly what has been detected and accurately identify its location, together with pictures.Document items and file reports as early as possible: Memories can fade quickly. The shorter the time frame between events and notation, the more accurate the reports will be. Using an app, you can document observations immediately. Copies of inspection reports should also be sent to managementReadability: Keep it simple, use common language, and include enough pictures. Don’t use specialist terms, but don’t be too prosaic, either. Just stick to a concise and clear description of the facts so anyone can read and understand the reports. Also remember that often people don’t read long texts, but they will look at pictures. As the old adage goes, a picture says more than a 1000 words, so make sure to include enough pictures.Layout and branding: Clean, structured, professional reports that include the company’s logo, header, footer, and other branding will radiate a professional attitude regarding safety towards all parties involved (client, workers, subcontractors, etc). If you demonstrate that you are being serious about safety, others will be more inclined to be serious as well.Include positive elements, too: When certain safety risks are managed well, or when a hazard that had been registered during a previous inspection has been addressed, don’t forget to compliment the workers on site and to mention this on your inspection report as well. People will be more receptive to your advice ‡ and like you better, too. Safety officers that only include problems and non-conformities in the report rarely achieve good results. Including compliments and positive items are great for worker motivation. With positive reinforcement, you add a reward for workers exhibiting desired behavior. Rewarding good conduct, rather than punishing negative actions, is a proven method to help promote positive behavior in both children and adults. By doing so you reinforce the desired action, which has a much stronger effect than punishment.Here is a preview of a safety report generated with ArchiSnapper:How to draft safety inspection reports without spending an hour at the end of the dayIf you’re still reading, you probably have no doubt that safety management and safety inspections are fundamental. Nevertheless, there has to be a better way to draft your safety report than having to spend at least an hour to manually put it together: writing out the text, inserting photos, managing the layout of the report, etc.It’s no secret that construction safety reports are a big struggle for safety officers and supervisors.With today’s technology, safety inspection reports do not require that much effort. With tools like ArchiSnapper, you can easily fill in a checklist, take photos and write text (or use voice to text), and the inspection reports will immediately be made available for everyone. Your logo, header, footer and other branding and layout settings will be applied automatically.With such an app you can use your tablet or phone on site. Just open the app, tap “new report,” and prthe required data:Fill in the project statusReview a checklistWrite texts or use the voice-to-text functionalityTake photos and annotate themHave the report signed off (if needed)Find the report archived to your cloud automatically, together with the signed versions and distribution historyThis way, you won’t have to spend an hour or so typing out scribbled notes, transferring pictures from your phone to your PC and then importing them into the report, or struggling with the layout in Word.Curious to see how this works with ArchiSnapper? Check out this video.How to select the right safety inspection appWhen you’re selecting a safety inspection app, make sure to take into account the following:SimplicityLess is more. At first, it might be tempting to choose an app with a lot of features, fields, forms, and configurations.But keep in mind that 90% of the time, you’ll only need 10% of your app’s core functionalities. What you need is a quick and easy way to review your safety checklist from your phone or tablet, with the ability to include photos and notes.Fewer buttons and functionalities means less risk for bugs, issues, and misunderstandings—and more adoption by your team, more standardization, and less frustration.Offline functionalitySooner or later, you’ll be without a reliable internet connection. (Think: broken wifi, no 4G network, unpaid telecommunications invoices…)So make sure your app works offline—and that you can at least capture notes and photos without a connection.Cloud storageYou don’t want to lose all your daily reports if your phone gets stolen or breaks. So your software should have a web backend where your data is synced, and which allows multiple colleagues to access all the inspection reports for viewing, editing, or distribution.CompatibilityThough it probably goes without saying, your app should work on both your mobile device and computer.I hear from a lot of safety professionals who prefer to use their phone on-site (to take photos and add quick notes) and then finish the report online from their desktop.Just a suggestion: I’d avoid buying a Windows device, since the software giant is no longer developing new features or hardware for Windows 10 mobile.Ample featuresThough your app should be simple, it should also include these essential capabilities and functions:Checklist functionalityThe ability to capture notes by typing on your phone/tablet/desktop OR using voice-to-textThe ability to capture photos with annotationsThe ability to draw and sketch on photosThe ability to generate safety reports in PDF format with brandingSignature capture functionalityThe ability to email the PDF construction reports to all parties involvedAutomatic data archiving and backupsThe ability to export/import data from other systemsAuto-numbering of items and reportsBest practices for getting the most out of your safety inspectionsDoing safety inspection visits and generating safety reports takes a lot of time and energy. So don’t forget to apply the following practices in order to get the best results from this process.Planning aheadPrior to doing inspections you need to make sure to have a checklist, an inspection schedule, that inspection members are trained, etc.You also must develop a plan for using your data, not just collecting it. How will the findings be communicated and shared? Will they be corrected in a timely manner and tracked to completion? As trends develop, how will action plans be developed and implemented to prevent reoccurrence?For most construction companies, each jobsite has its own unique risks. Devote time before construction starts to identify those risks and establish a plan to address them. Communicate this safety analysis regularly to workers so they know what hazards to expect and how to work around them.Follow upObservations are the beginning, not the end, of the inspection process.Any health and safety deficiencies identified during the inspection should be noted and corrective action should be taken. Follow up to see that the corrective action has been taken and that the hazard has been effectively dealt with. That’s why it makes sense to always start from your previous inspection report and keep unfinished items in the report—and mark solved items as “OK.” (Positive reinforcement, remember?)Where inspections are being done by the company’s health and safety coordinator or the site health and safety representative, the site supervisor should accompany them so that any corrective action needed can be implemented as soon as possible.AnalyzeMost companies stop once the inspection is completed and the initial hazards are discovered, shared, and fixed (i.e., once the moles are whacked). This is a major error that will prevent meaningful improvements in the safety process.If you are not conducting trend analysis on the observations you collect, these incidents could be happening quite often. Ideally, you should be looking at trends and leading metrics on a number of fronts, for instance:What are the top hazards identified by hazard category?Who are the most at-risk contractors?What are the most at-risk projects?What recurring trends are developing?By tracking and trending this information, you can turn collected data into actionable information.Don’t shoot the messengerIt is essential that the observation reporting, especially significant hazards, be non-punitive and protected. In other words, don’t shoot the messenger? This often occurs from a misperception that finding unsafe observations is a reflection of how well one does the job, which will then reflect poorly on the observer or project team. It also can occur if a senior manager reacts poorly to the discoveries, such as reprimanding the observer or failing to act on the data collected.Management involvementKey to the success of any safety program is strong commitment, support, and backing from management. Frontline supervisors and safety officers do the majority of planned general inspections, but middle and upper management must also conduct safety tours.Whatever the project manager and leadership focuses on will be viewed by the team as important. The old saying, “Actions speak louder than words,” is true. Project managers who place a premium on integrating safety into their projects will ensure better overall project performance. They set the tone, agree to and enforce standards, and establish the concept that focusing on safety is the only way to do business.Furthermore, workers and their representatives should also be involved in all aspects of your safety program—including setting goals, identifying and reporting hazards, investigating incidents, and tracking progress.Workers should be encouraged and have the means to communicate openly with management, to report safety and health concerns without fear of retaliation.